English language learners are often confused by modal verbs because they are used differently than other verbs and in a wide variety of situations such as asking for permission and giving advice. There are a couple methods you can use to teach students modal verbs. One is to introduce only a few words at a time and complete several practice activities before attempting to introduce additional vocabulary. Another way you can teach modal verbs is to structure your lessons around their uses. You could leave all the modal verbs written on the board for the whole chapter but use only the ones appropriate for giving advice in one lesson and asking for permission in another for instance.
Let’s look at the second method in more detail.
Follow These Steps To Teach Modal Verbs
Introduce all modals
Start by introducing all the modal verbs you wish to talk about. This may include can, could, may, might, must, will, would, shall, should, and ought to but, depending on the level of your class, you can narrow it down to those you feel are most important. Obviously there are no images that can help students understand the meanings of these words so you can do pronunciation practice simply by pointing to the words on the board. In your introduction you can cover some rules that apply to all modal verbs. Unlike most verbs, no -s is needed to form the third person singular. For example “He should ~.” is correct, while “He work.” is incorrect. Adding not forms the negative structure. Additionally they always require another verb because they cannot act as the main verb in a sentence and they only have present tense forms so unlike the word swim, there is no past tense form for modals. This may seem like a long and confusing introduction but it is best after the pronunciation practice to simply write the modals and their rules off to the side of the board for reference.
Ability/Inability and Possibility/Impossibility
Modals are often used to talk about abilities and possibilities or lack of them. Some of the words you want to focus on in this section are can, could, may, and might. Talk to your students about things they can do and practice using can in the target structure because this will be the easiest word to start off with (see our CAN worksheets). Next you should talk about might because it is also commonly used when talking about present possibilities such as “We can’t play music in class because the other classes might be taking tests.” which nicely combines the two words in one sentence. Building upon that, talk about how could and may are used to discuss future abilities and possibilities and also how could can be used to talk about the past in a sentence such as “When I was a child, I could climb trees.” So as you can see just this one section on modals can take awhile. It is best to introduce structures gradually and to plan lots of practice activities for each.
You can center another lesson on asking for permission or making an offer or request. Can, could, may, shall, will, and would can all be used so you might want to break this up into pairs by introducing can and could, will and would, and finally may and shall. In other lessons you can cover using modals to make suggestions and give advice, to talk about obligations and prohibitions, and lastly cover using ought to and should to say what the correct action would be for instance “She ought to see a doctor.” or “We should be quiet while the teacher is talking.” For some classes it is not necessary to cover all the different uses of modal verbs so feel free to choose what is most important and then cover those items thoroughly before moving on to the next topic.
If you cover many different uses of modal verbs in your class, be sure to have a lesson which combines them again. It makes sense to start with all the words you plan to cover in the first class and finish the same way. Since students have been focusing on just one use at a time, this lesson will bring to their attention the range of uses these words have and really challenge them. Fill in the blank and multiple choice worksheets may be appropriate and of course you can conduct role plays based on the different uses of modal verbs too.
Modal verbs have many uses. Teachers should review the uses of modals carefully before introducing them and think about what students would most benefit from studying so that plenty of time can be dedicated to those items. Leaving out some modals or some uses of modals is not the end of the world and may just give your students a better chance of understanding what is covered.
Tara Arntsen has worked with English Language Learners of all ages for many years and has taught in Japan, Cambodia, and China as well as online. When she is not teaching, she enjoys cooking, traveling around the world, and scuba diving. She is a member of the Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi and is currently pursuing an M.A. in Teaching-TESOL at the University of Southern California.
Firstly, I think it's really natural for students of a new language to say things in a way that a native speaker wouldn't. The truth is that we're all translating from our native tongues up to a point, where we begin to think in the second (or third or fourth) language, and that means that we use constructions that wouldn't be used in that language. Furthermore, as my students become familiar with certain words (they love 'furthermore,' and 'indeed'), they try to use them wherever possible to expand their vocabulary and to have fun with the language. That's all really positive, and it will only be through regular use and gentle corrections from a person in a teaching role that they will ease into using them in the proper sense.
Having said that, I thought the examples you gave were interesting. the first: 'Through this lecture I can improve my English writing skills' - what would you have had the student say? That is, what is the meaning you think they meant to convey? Should it have been, 'Through this lecture I have improved my English writing skills?' Because that is not the same sense, and therefore it is by nature grammatically incorrect. The second example, 'At the mall there is an aquarium where I could enjoy watching the fish,' is a little less hazy - this really is an improper use of the word 'could'. Could is used for the past tense of 'can', so in that case, she should have written, 'At the mall there was an aquarium where I could enjoy watching the fish.' Could is also used for the conditional, but that would mean she would need a deterrent - 'At the mall there is an aquarium where I could enjoy watching the fish, if only I could find the time!' Finally, could is used for politeness in asking for something, but not in asking for permission. In that case, of course, we use 'may' and, far more often these days, 'can'. So I can't see a construction that would make sense of the word 'could' there.
Don't know if you'll see this because of course your post is quite old, but here's hoping it helps a little...
I need help! My students are writing sentences that are, as far as I can tell, grammatically correct but wonky. For instance, "Through this lecture I can improve my English writing skills." and "At the mall there is an aquarium where I could enjoy watching the fish." The only thing I can think of is that they are not being emphatic enough and that modals are not necessary :(