The theory of backwards design in lesson and curriculum planning is not a new one.
It is often introduced briefly in TEFL training courses, but quickly falls by the wayside as the reality of the classroom sets in. However, more and more modern educators are starting to realise the usefulness and effectiveness of backwards design. This is interesting because it challenges the traditional class planning model by, literally, turning it on its head. But what is ‘backwards design, what benefits does it have, and how can you use it to improve your classes?
Put simply, backwards design starts with the outcome in mind. Unlike traditional planning which begins with materials and activities, backwards design is a way of planning a class or course that starts with the learning outcomes or goals, then moves ‘backward’ to thinking about what evidence will show that these goals have been met, and then designing classes and activities that will allow that evidence to be collected. These are the three steps of backwards design.
This theory of lesson design has many benefits:
Working with backwards design, while beneficial, can be difficult for teachers. Don’t be discouraged if you find it difficult at first.
Also, be careful not to confuse backwards design with ‘teaching to the test’. ‘Evidence’, in the case of backwards design, does not necessarily mean testing. It could be an ongoing process, class projects, creative projects, or anything that you, as the teacher, decide constitutes evidence that students have reached the set goals.
By working through the steps above, you can plan a backwards class, course, or curriculum. It can require a big shift in a teacher’s thinking, but the benefits are worth the initial work you put in.
Do you have any experience with backwards design? Will you try it? Let me know in the comments.
This is a guest article by Samantha Russel. Samantha currently teaches in South Korea. She has a BA in psychology and an MA in social anthropology. She has lectured at Massey University, New Zealand and has taught students at all levels. Samantha strives to empower students in their education and help them discover their own learning motivations.
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